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What is PostgreSQL? Modern Features of PostgreSQL

Now, COMPANY table does not have any record because all the records have been deleted by the DELETE statement. There are several built-in functions like avg(), sum(), count() to perform what is known as aggregate data calculations against a table or a specific table column. PostgreSQL EXPRESSIONS are like formulas and they are written in query language. You can also use to query the database for specific set of data. Here, column1, column2,…columnN are the names of the columns in the table into which you want to insert data.

postgresql has many modern features including

All major operating systems, including Linux, UNIX (AIX, BSD, HP-UX, SGI IRIX, Mac OS X, Solaris, Tru64), and Windows. D. A template for authorization to various database objects. PostgreSQL support for JSON, with the help of JSON the linking with other data stores like NoSQL, is possible as it acts as a federated hub for polyglot databases.


The UNIQUE Constraint prevents two records from having identical values in a particular column. In the COMPANY table, for example, you might want to prevent two or more people from having identical age. Column level constraints are applied only to one column whereas table level constraints are applied to the whole table.

postgresql has many modern features including

Users can participate in the PostgreSQL community to post and share knowledge, doubts, and bugs. Users can develop or propose new modules to its community as its open-source database management system. With that said, Distributed SQL is a popular category of modern databases offering high PostgreSQL compatibility. Spanner introduced this category, but—as illustrated—ranks low in overall compatibility.


The PostgreSQL views can be created from a single table, multiple tables, or another view. Since views are not ordinary tables, you may not be able to execute a DELETE, INSERT, or UPDATE statement on a view. However, you can create a RULE to correct this problem of using DELETE, INSERT or UPDATE on a view. The PostgreSQL ALTER TABLE command is used to add, delete or modify columns in an existing table. A trigger that is marked FOR EACH ROW is called once for every row that the operation modifies.

According to the PostgreSQL documentation, no database currently satisfies all of the requirements outlined by the specification. Another area where PostgreSQL stands out over other relational https://globalcloudteam.com/ database systems is its adherence to SQL standards. One of the most fundamental ways that PostgreSQL is different from most other relational databases comes from its core design.

  • A. Allow an administrator to designate specific locations in a file system where database objects can be stored.
  • A foreign key constraint specifies that the values in a column must match the values appearing in some row of another table.
  • Geometric data types represent two-dimensional spatial objects.
  • PostgreSQL is the first database management system that implements multi-version concurrency control feature, even before Oracle.
  • You can use the user ID and password based on your database setting.

Psycopg2 was written with the aim of being very small and fast, and stable as a rock. You do not need to install this module separately because it is shipped, by default, along with Python version 2.5.x onwards. This public method from non-transactional object will be used to execute SQL statement and returns a result object which is actually an interator holding all the returned records. This is a typedef which will be used to create a non-transactional object using connection C, which ultimately will be used to execute SQL statements in non-transactional mode. This is a typedef which will be used to create a transactional object using connection C, which ultimately will be used to execute SQL statements in transactional mode. For example, a common use of advisory locks is to emulate pessimistic locking strategies typical of the so-called “flat file” data management systems.

Installing PostgreSQL on Linux (Ubuntu 17.

Plpgsql is the name of the language that the function is implemented in. Here, we use this option for PostgreSQL, it Can be SQL, C, internal, or the name of a user-defined procedural language. For backward compatibility, the name can be enclosed by single quotes. A subquery can have only one column in the SELECT clause, unless multiple columns are in the main query for the subquery to compare its selected columns.

postgresql has many modern features including

If transaction object gets created successfully, then it is assigned to variable N which will be used to access public methods related to non-transactional object. If transaction object gets created successfully, then it is assigned to variable W which will be used to access public methods related to transactional object. PostgreSQL AVG Function − The PostgreSQL AVG aggregate function selects the average value for certain table column. This function is conceptually similar to the trunc function for numbers. Field selects to which precision to truncate the input value. Bigserial should be used if you anticipate the use of more than 231 identifiers over the lifetime of the table.

Going further, the degree of compatibility isn’t all or nothing—databases can be higher or lower for any given metric. But, a database can only support an application to the degree it can support other forms of compatibility. This is equivalent to $h→errstr, where $h is any of the handle types like $dbh, $sth, or $drh.

Feature Compatibility

This relational database has made major strides in user adoption since 2014 and has been named “Database of the Year” several times by DB-Engines. It was voted the “Most Wanted” database in Stack Overflow’s 2021 Developer Survey. The PostgreSQL can be integrated with Perl using Perl DBI module, which is a database access module for the Perl programming language. It defines a set of methods, variables and conventions that provide a standard database interface.

PostgreSQL vs. MySQL: Which Is Best? – Database Journal

PostgreSQL vs. MySQL: Which Is Best?.

Posted: Fri, 08 Apr 2022 07:00:00 GMT [source]

One of the primary reasons for choosing to use PostgreSQL is its large list of features. PostgreSQL possesses an incredible number of features related to performance, security, programming extensions, and configuration among others. An open-source ORDBMS developed at UC Berkley, which supports many modern features. It has been developed by a group of professional who has years of experience in developing database management type platforms. D. An open-source ORDBMS developed at UC Berkley, which supports many modern features.

PostgreSQL – Useful Functions

They are equivalent to the enum types supported in a number of programming languages. PostgreSQL is one of the advanced open-source databases, It offers many advantages for your company or business over other database systems. PostgreSQL is an object-relational database management system. With relational database systems, you use tables to store and manage information. This sounds simple but involves quite complex concepts such as normal forms, key relationships, and JOINs. A schema can also contain views, indexes, sequences, data types, operators, and functions.

It extends full support for SSL, database encryption, single-sign-on, and lets you manage users, roles, etc. as per the needs of the project. It provides advanced locking mechanisms, tablespaces, partitioned tables, and many different types of indices. It can also run parallel queries and offers advanced cost-based query optimization. Such features ensure that it delivers unparalleled performance as an RDBMS.

Primarily it was referred to as POSTGRES, pertaining to its predecessor, the original one, INGRES database system which was developed at first. PostgreSQL (pronounced as post-gress-Q-L) is an open source relational database management system developed by a worldwide team of volunteers. PostgreSQL is not controlled by any corporation or other private entity and the source code is available free of charge. That is, they are not real tables; nevertheless appear as ordinary tables to SELECT.

Let us write a query using data modifying statements along with the WITH clause, as shown below. The WITH query being CTE query, is particularly useful when subquery is executed multiple times. It computes the aggregation once and allows us to reference it by its name in the queries. The PostgreSQL GROUP BY clause is used in collaboration with the SELECT statement to group together those rows in a table that have identical data.

postgresql has many modern features including

Functions can be created in a language of your choice like SQL, PL/pgSQL, C, Python, etc. It returns the actual current time, but as a formatted text string rather than a timestamp with time zone value. It returns the actual current time, and therefore its value changes even within a single SQL command. The subquery can be used in conjunction with the DELETE statement postgresql has many modern features including like with any other statements mentioned above. Subqueries that return more than one row can only be used with multiple value operators, such as the IN, EXISTS, NOT IN, ANY/SOME, ALL operator. The above message indicates that the table is locked until the transaction ends and to finish the transaction you will have to either rollback or commit the transaction.


The column aliases are used to rename a table’s columns for the purpose of a particular PostgreSQL query. The PostgreSQL DISTINCT keyword is used in conjunction with SELECT statement to eliminate all the duplicate records and fetching only unique records. This allows you to perform several different operations in the same query. The PostgreSQL ORDER BY clause is used to sort the data in ascending or descending order, based on one or more columns. For an action to be taken by the PostgreSQL statement, whether it be a transaction or query, only any ONE of the conditions separated by the OR must be TRUE.

The following C code segment shows how to connect to an existing database running on local machine at port 5432. This public method from transactional object will be used to rollback the transaction. This public method from transactional object will be used to commit the transaction. This method is used to disconnect an opened database connection. PostgreSQL String Functions − Complete list of PostgreSQL functions required to manipulate strings in PostgreSQL. PostgreSQL Numeric Functions − Complete list of PostgreSQL functions required to manipulate numbers in SQL.

BigAnimal lets you run Oracle SQL queries in the cloud via EDB Postgres Advanced Server. This method rolls back any changes to the database since the last call to commit(). This submits a request to create a prepared statement with the given parameters and waits for completion. This routine returns the status of the specified connection.



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